Anglo Irish Agreement Essay Topic

Text of the Anglo-Irish Agreement 1985

Anglo-Irish Agreement 1985

Information on the CAIN website about the Anglo-Irish Agreement 1985

CAIN – Anglo-Irish Agreement

Excerpt from book on Northern Ireland in the 1980s by Annerose Baumann dealing with the Anglo-Irish Agreement 1985

Northern Ireland in the 1980s

British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Irish Taoiseach Garrett Fitzgerald sign the Anglo Irish Agreement on 15 November 1985

Unionist Protests against the Anglo-Irish Agreement

Part of a documentary outlining how the Anglo-Irish Agreement came about and how the Unionists reacted to the Agreement.

On 8th November 1987 the IRA planted a bomb at the Remembrance Day Parade in Enniskillen Co. Fermanagh. Eleven people were killed and sixty three injured. This video clip includes a poignant interview with Gordon Wilson whose daughter was killed in the Enniskillen bombing.

Miltown Cemetery Attack

On 6th March 1988 three IRA members, Daniel McCann, Sean Savage and Mairead Farrell were shot dead by the British SAS in Gibraltar. The three IRA members were planning an attack on British troops in Gibraltar but were unarmed when they were shot.


A Thames Television documentary on the Gibraltar Killings

On 16th March 1998 the funeral of the three IRA members took place to Milltown Cemetery in West Belfast. As the coffins were being lowered into their graves a lone Loyalist gunman, Michael Stone, launched a gun and grenade attack on the mourners at the funerals.

On 19th March 1988 the funeral of one of the victims killed during the attack at Milltown Cemetery, IRA member Caoimhín Mac Brádaigh, was taking place in Andersonstown in Belfast. During the funeral procession a car containing two British soldiers came upon the funeral cortege. Fearing another attack like the Miltown Cemetery attack, mourners surrounded the car attacked the two soldiers and dragged them off. The IRA later killed the two soldiers, David Robert Howes (23) and Derek Tony Wood (24).

List of the deaths that occurred in 1988 as a result of violence in Northern Ireland.


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The Anglo Irish Agreement Essay

The Anglo-Irish Agreement
The Anglo-Irish agreement, 1985, this was agreed between Prime
Minister Margaret Thatcher and Irish Taoiseach Garrett Fitzgerald.
Between 1980 and 1984, the British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
held regular meetings with Taoiseach Charles Haughey and then Garrett
Fitzgerald. Both governments were concerned about continuing the
violence with the IRA and about the increasing support for the IRA’S
political wing, Sinn Fein. By 1984, Mrs Thatcher was convinced that
any solution would have to involve the Irish republicans. Unionists in
Northern Ireland became increasingly concerned during these
discussions, but Thatcher ignored their fears. In November 1985, she
signed the Anglo-Irish agreement with Garrett Fitzgerald. The
agreement was well received in most of mainland Britain and the
republic. In Northern Ireland, the alliance and SDLP felt that it had
possibilities. Sinn Fein rejected this because it confirmed the
partition of Ireland. The Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1922 established the
Irish Free State. Unionist objections to a united Ireland had resulted
in the establishment of Northern Ireland through the Government of
Ireland Act 1920. Relations between Dublin and London soured shortly
after the arrival to power of Eamonn de Valera in 1932. The 1930s were
dominated by a trade war, instigated by de Valera's Fianna Fail
Government. Ireland ratified a new constitution in 1937 and declared
itself a Republic in 1948. Britain responded with the Ireland Act
1949, which claimed exclusive British jurisdiction over the
administration of Northern Ireland. The emergence of the civil
rights movement and subsequent political violence in Northern Ireland
in the late 1960s strained relations between Dublin and London. Jack
Lynch, the then Taoiseach asserted:

The Irish Government can no longer stand by and see innocent people
injured and, perhaps, worse. The Irish Government have ... requested
the British Government to apply immediately to the United Nations for
the urgent dispatch of a peace-keeping force to the six counties of
Northern Ireland

The British Government responded that 'Northern Ireland had long been
an integral part of the United Kingdom and that events there were an
internal matter for the United Kingdom Government' The Stormont
Government was prorogued and direct rule from Westminster was
established in March 1972. Direct rule was seen as a temporary measure
but has continued to this day.

Taken from "I had come to
the conclusion that I must now give priority to heading off the growth
of support for the IRA in Northern Ireland by seeking a new
understanding with the British Government, even at the expense of my
cherished, but for the time being at least clearly unachievable,

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