Agriculture is known to be one of the most significant economic activities. It involves the production of plants, livestock, fiber, fuel and more by utilizing natural resources such as water and land. The term agriculture is broader than it is commonly anticipated to be. It includes forestry, fishery, livestock and most importantly crop production. Here are essays of varying lengths on agriculture to help you with the topic in the exam.
Essay on Agriculture
Agriculture Essay 1 (200 words)
Agriculture is basically the cultivation of plants for the production of food, fuel, fiber, medicines and many other things that have become a necessity for the mankind. Agriculture also involves the breeding of animals. The development of agriculture turned to be a boon for the human civilization as it also gave way to their development.
Agriculture is said to be an art, science and commerce all at the same time as it suffices the factors involved in all three.
It is said to be an art as it involves the growth, development and management of crop and animal husbandry. It requires patience and dedication to yield good results in this field and only someone who possesses this art can achieve it.
The knowledge of breeding and genetics is employed to come up with new improved methods of agriculture. Several inventions and explorations are being made in the field. It is ever evolving and thus qualifies as science.
Agriculture supports the economy like no other sector and thus undoubtedly falls in this category too.
With around two-third of the Indian population dependent directly or indirectly on agriculture, it is considered to be the basis of the country’s economic development. It is not just known to be a source of livelihood in India but a way of life.
Agriculture Essay 2 (300 words)
The term agriculture comes from the Latin word ager which means field and cultura that means cultivation. Agriculture basically involves the cultivation and production of crops and livestock products.
History of Agriculture
The history of agriculture dates back several centuries. It began in different parts of the world independently about 105,000 years back mostly by the collection of wild grains for the purpose of eating. Here is how different countries were involved in this activity:
- In Mesopotamia, pigs were domesticated around 15,000 years ago. They began domesticating sheep around 2000 years later.
- In China, rice was cultivated around 13,500 years ago. They eventually began cultivating soy, azuki beans and mung.
- In Turkey, cattle were domesticated around 10,500 years ago.
- Beans, potato, coca, llamas and alpacas were domesticated around 10,000 years ago.
- Sugarcane and certain root vegetables were cultivated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago.
- Cotton was domesticated in Peru around 5,600 years ago.
Similarly, the domestication of various plants and animals is being done in many other parts of the country since thousands of years.
Impact of Modern Technology on Agriculture
The development in the field of science and technology led to the use of modern techniques in agriculture. While it has contributed a great deal to the development of the agriculture sector, the modern technology has also had certain negative repercussions on the sector. Here is the kind of impact it has had:
- The use of fertilizers and pesticides as well as the use of technologically advanced equipments for the cultivation of crops has increased the yields drastically however it has also been the cause of ecological damage and impacted the human health negatively.
- Selective breeding and the use of other modern practices in the rearing of animals has increased the supply of meat however it has raised the concern about animal welfare.
Like every other sector, the agricultural sector has also evolved over the centuries and its development has brought about certain positive and negative repercussions to the society.
Agriculture Essay 3 (400 words)
Agriculture is a vast subject. It encompasses the production of crops, animal husbandry, soil science, horticulture, dairy science, extension education, entomology, agriculture chemistry, agri engineering, agri economics, plant pathology and botany. These subjects are taught in various universities across the world to train people in the field.
Different Kinds of Farming
Here is a look at how the agricultural field has broadly been categorized in our country:
- Subsistence Farming
One of the most widely practiced technique of farming in India. Under this type of farming, the farmers grow grains for themselves as well as for the purpose of sale.
- Commercial Agriculture
This type of agriculture focuses on high yield with the aim to export it to other countries to generate profit. Some of the commonly grown commercial crops in the country include cotton, wheat and sugarcane.
- Shifting Agriculture
This type of farming is majorly practiced by tribal groups to grow root crops. They mostly clear the forested area and grow crops there.
- Extensive Agriculture
This is more common in the developed countries. However, it is also practiced in certain parts of India. It focuses on the use of machinery to grow and raise crops.
- Intensive Agriculture
This is a common practice in densely populated areas of the country. It is focused on generating maximizing output of the land by employing different techniques. A good amount of investment in terms of money and huge labour force is required for this.
- Plantation Agriculture
This type of agriculture involves the cultivation of crops that require a good amount of time and space for growing. Some of these crops include tea, rubber, coffee, cocoa, coconut, fruits and spices. This is mostly practiced in the states of Assam, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Kerala.
- Wet Land Farming
The areas that receive heavy rainfall are well irrigated and these are apt for the farming of crops such as jute, rice and sugarcane.
- Dry Land Farming
It is practiced in desert-like areas such as the central and northwest India. Some of the crops grown in such areas are bajra, jowar and gram. This is because these crops require less water for growth.
With the advancement in technology, agriculture has come a long way. It is not limited to just growing crops and rearing of cattle. It includes a whole lot of other subjects and someone who is interested in getting into the agricultural field can choose to specialise in one.
Agriculture Essay 4 (500 words)
Agriculture basically involves the cultivation of crops and the domestication of animals for the purpose of generating food and other things necessary for the mankind. While it is being practiced since centuries, it has evolved over the time and has become one of the major factors in the development of our country’s economy.
Significance of Agriculture
Here is a look at the significance of agriculture:
- Major Source of Food
It goes without saying that the food we eat is a gift of the agricultural activities that take place in the country. The country has seen times of acute food shortage before independence however the problem was resolved with the advent of the green revolution in agriculture in the year 1969.
- Major Contributor to National Income
Statistics reveal that, the national income from primary agricultural activities was about 59% in the year 1950-51. While it has come down eventually and reached around 24% about a decade back, the agricultural sector in India is still one of the major contributors to the national income.
- Development of the Industrial Sector
Agriculture plays a major role in the development of the industrial sector by providing the raw material. Industries such as the cotton textiles, sugar, jute, oil, rubber and tobacco are majorly dependent on the agricultural sector.
- Employment Opportunities
The agricultural sector offers numerous employment opportunities as a large labour force is required for the smooth functioning of various agricultural activities. It does not only open a vast arena of direct employment opportunities but indirect as well. For instance, the agricultural products need to be transported from one place to another and hence it supports the transport sector.
- Boost in Foreign Trade
Foreign trade relies majorly on the agricultural sector. Agricultural exports form a good 70% of the total exports. India is an exporter of tea, tobacco, cotton textiles, jute products, sugar, spices and many other agricultural products.
- Generation of Government Revenue
Excise duty on agro-based goods, land revenue and taxes on the sale of agricultural machinery make for a good source of government revenue.
- Formation of Capital
The surplus income generated from agricultural activities can very well be invested in banks for capital formation.
Agriculture: A hazardous Industry
While agricultural sector is of great importance to the country, we cannot deny the fact that is a hazardous industry. Farmers across the globe have a high risk of work related injuries. One of the common causes of agricultural injuries is tractor rollovers and other motor and machinery related accidents. Due to the nature of their job they are also prone to skin diseases, lung infections, noise-induced hearing problems, sun strokes as well as certain types of cancers. Those exposed to pesticides may have serious illnesses and might even have kids with birth defects.
However, that said, agriculture does play a significant part in the development of the human civilization as a whole. As Booker T. Washington said, “No race can prosper till it learns there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem”, agriculture sector is an integral part of the country.
Agriculture Essay 5 (600 words)
Agriculture is one sector that has been in place since thousands of years. It has developed over the years with the use of new equipments and techniques of farming and domestication. This is one sector that has not only seen immense growth but has also been the reason for growth of various other sectors.
The Growth and Development of Agricultural Sector
India is one such country which is largely dependent on the agricultural sector. Agriculture in India is not just a means of livelihood but a way of life. The government is continually making efforts to develop this sector. Let us learn how this sector has evolved with time.
Though agriculture is being practiced since centuries in India, it remained under developed for a pretty long time. We were unable to produce sufficient food for our people and foreign export was simply out of question. On the contrary, we had to purchase food grains from other countries. This was because agriculture in India depended on the monsoon. In case, there was enough rain, the crops fertilized properly, when there wasn’t enough rain the crops just failed and most parts of the country were hit by famine. However, things changed with time. After independence, the government planned to bring about improvement in this sector. Dams were constructed, tube-wells and pump-sets were set up, better quality seeds, fertilizers were made available and new techniques were employed.
With the use of technologically advanced equipment, good irrigation facilities and with specialized knowledge about the field things began improving. We soon started producing much more than we required and subsequently started exporting food grains and different agricultural products. Our agricultural sector is now stronger than that of many countries. India stands first in the production of groundnuts and tea and ranks second in the production of sugarcane, rice, jute and oil seeds across the globe.
However, we still have a long way to go and the government is making efforts in this direction.
Negative Repercussions of Agriculture on Environment
As much as it has helped in the development of the human civilization and the growth of the country’s economy, agriculture has also had certain negative repercussions on the people involved in this sector as well as the environment as a whole. Here are the negative repercussions of agriculture on environment:
- Agriculture has led to deforestation. Many forests are cut to turn them into fields to cultivate crops. The negative impacts of deforestation and the need to control it is hidden from none.
- Not many of you may be aware that the building of watersheds and draining of water from the rivers for irrigation of fields leads to drier natural habitats.
- The runoff from the fields into the rivers and other water bodies results in that water getting poisoned owing to the use of excessive nutrients and insecticides.
- Topsoil depletion and groundwater contamination are some of the other issues that the agricultural activities have given way to.
Agriculture has thus impacted the soil and water resources negatively and this has had a major impact on the environment.
Agriculture is also considered to be a hazardous occupation. Those involved in farming are constantly exposed to different chemical based fertilizers and pesticides and the continual use of these can lead to several health hazards such as skin diseases, lung infections and certain other serious illnesses.
While agriculture has given so much to our society, it comes with its own set of cons that cannot be overlooked. While the government is doing so much to bring about growth and development in this field, it should also take measures to tackle the negative impact it is creating on the environment and those involved in the field.
Speech on Agriculture
The Green Revolution implies:
- Well-marked improvement in agricultural production in a short period and
- The sustenance of a higher level of agricultural production over a fairly long period of time.
The miracle seeds and dwarf and early-maturing varieties have brought about a sudden transformation in Indian agriculture. A vital change with revolutionary significance was the extensive adoption of multiple cropping patterns.
The machine has entered Indian farming in a big way and tractors, harvesters, pumping sets, croppers, etc. have come to be recognized as implements for daily use. Similarly manures and fertilizers have been extensively used. Institutional finance for agricultural development has made credit easily available to farmers.
It was within a span of a decade and a half that world agriculture was totally transformed particularly in regard to the cultivation of wheat and paddy. The increase in yield as compared to the erstwhile varieties has been two to three times higher.
It is a fact that Green Revolution has occurred in India since 1967. Dantwala however said that, the, Green Revolution in India has been technological in character rather than institutional.
The effects of Green Revolution can be discussed under two heads:
- Economic impact of Green Revolution
- Sociological impact of Green Revolution.
Economic Effects of Green Revolution
The important economic effects of the Green Revolution are :
1. Increase in Agricultural Production: The first major direct effect of the green revolution has been the sharp increase in agricultural production. As a result of new agricultural strategy, food grains output increased substantially.
So far as food grains are concerned, wheat seems to have made rapid strides with its production increasing from 11.1 million tons in the Third Plan (annual average) 63 million tons in 1995-96.
In the second phase, the revolution has spread to other crops. Most of the important crops registered a sizable increase during the seventies.
2. Increase in Productivity: The productivity of agriculture, as measured in terms of yield per hectare, has increased.
3. Impact on Employment: Capital-intensive techniques of the new agricultural strategy are supposed to be also at the same time labor-intensive. This new technology is characterized by frequent application of water, fertilizers, insecticides, double cropping, larger volumes of transportation, Marketing and food-processing. This will lead to increased employment and increased income among the agricultural laborers and small farmers.
4. Dependence on the Industrial Sector: An important aspect of the new agricultural strategy is the stress it lays, on making agriculture dependent on industries for its inputs. The traditional Indian agriculture was self-sufficient in the matter of its input requirements. But the new strategy attaches great importance of industrial products as agricultural inputs. As domestic investments always involve a great deal of foreign participation, the new strategy involves encouraging a direct role of the multinationals in agricultural development.
(5) Impact on Agrarian Structure: One aspect of the new strategy would make the agrarian structure dualistic. It would consist of a prosperous, production-oriented, profit oriented and technology-oriented, thin crust of big farms and a great mass of small farmers that would lag behind in matters of production, profit and technology. The thin crust of big farms would swallow up the greater part of the resources that would be allocated by the state for the agricultural sector.
(6) Impact on Landless Labor: In the green revolution areas, there has been a marked increase in demand for wage-labor particularly at the peak period. As a result of increased demand for labor, the position of labor in the market will improve and they will fight against economic and social oppression.
Sociological Impact of Green Revolution
The green revolution has pushed up the level of income in the rural sector of the economy. The increase in production has generated larger incomes in the rural sector and has also widened regional disparities.
1. Inter-Personal Inequalities: The green revolution has promoted inequalities and has widened the already existing gulf between the rich and the poor in the rural sector. A large part of the benefits of the green revolution has gone to a privileged section of rich farmers who are in a position to afford the new strategy which is a package programme. The new strategy needs substantial investments which are generally beyond the means of a majority of the small and marginal farmers.
2. Regional Inequalities: The new agricultural strategy has restricted to only a few regions. As a result, the benefits of the new strategy have remained concentrated in this area only. Two-thirds of the total cultivable land areas have been kept outside the influence of the revolution.
3. Change in Attitudes: One encouraging feature of the green revolution is the change in the attitudes of farmers in areas where new agricultural strategy has being practiced. Increase in productivity has raised the status of agriculture from a low-level subsistence activity to a money-making activity. The Indian farmers have accepted technical change in the pursuit of profit thus belaying the criticism against them that they are backward, traditional, conservative and unresponsive to price and productivity incentives.
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