TV and Film Violence Reaches a New High
TV and Film Violence
Does the violence in films and on TV contribute to violence in society?
This question has been debated for decades. During that time some 2,500 books and articles have been written on the effects of TV and film violence on human behavior.
In this article we're going to summarize some the latest thinking on this subject.
Researchers followed 329 subjects over 15 years. They found that those who as children were exposed to violent TV shows were much more likely to later be convicted of crime. Researchers said that, "Media violence can affect any child from any family," regardless of social class or parenting.
Girls who watched more than an average amount of violence tended to throw things at their husbands. Boys who grew up watching violent TV shows were more likely to be violent with their wives.
Researchers concluded in Developmental Psychology that, "Every violent TV show increases a little-bit the likelihood of a child growing up to behave more aggressively."
We'll look at more of the research in a moment.
Although the concern in Canada was primarily violence (hence the V-chip), in the United States there is also great concern about sexual content -- probably more than in most other industrialized societies. Hence, the V-chip can be programmed to screen out both violence and sex.
A clear cause-effect relationship between media violence and violence in society is complicated by the fact that children are typically exposed to many stimuli as they grow up, many of which could play a role in later behavior.
For example, during a child's life we can't discount the role of such things as violent video games, the social values of parents and peers, or general living conditions.
If you eat something that you have not tried before and immediately get sick, you will probably assume there's a direct relationship between the two.
And if at some later date you forget about your first experience and eat the same thing again, and immediately get sick again, you can be fairly sure that whatever you ate makes you sick.
No rocket science here, just clear cause and effect.Unfortunately, when it comes to violence in the media, the cause and effect is not as readily apparent.
A few decades ago you would see doctors in TV commercials endorsing a particular brand of cigarettes. Many medical doctors smoked.
Today the evidence is clear: smoking is the number one cause of preventable heath problems and premature death in the United States. Although for years the cigarette manufacturers suppressed evidence that linked smoking to health problems, eventually the cause-effect relationship became obvious to anyone who wanted investigate the facts.
Unlike the cause and effect in the example of your eating something and immediately getting sick, the effects of cigarette smoking aren't immediately apparent. It's only years later that many smokers develop lung cancer, heart problems, emphysema, sexual problems, etc.In the same way-after looking at years of accumulated data-we're now recognizing a relationship between violence in the media and social problems.
|The results of a study released in March, 2002 that tracked 700 male and female youths over a seventeen-year period showed a definite relationship between TV viewing habits and acts of aggression and crime in the later life. |
All other possible contributing environmental elements, such as poverty, living in a violent neighborhood, and neglect, were factored out of this study.
According to one of the authors of the study, the findings help cement the link between TV and violence. The study is detailed in Science.
Violence and TV RatingsIt's well known that TV violence holds an attraction for most viewers and this attraction translates into ratings and profits. Because of this, most media executives have been reluctant to admit that media violence is in any way responsible for violence in our society.
If it weren't for the ratings and profits involved, producers would undoubtedly be much more willing to acknowledge the harm in TV and film violence and do something about it.After many high school students died in a shooting rampage at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado in April, 1999, many people were quick to blame the media. Violent video games and a well-known film were seen as contributing factors.
Even so, a clear cause and effect is hard to establish. For example, millions of young people were exposed to both of these influences throughout their lives without going on a murderous rampage. But when you add extreme anger, easy access to guns, and an indifferent and amoral attitude toward the lives of others, the results can be very different.
In 1992, TV Guide commissioned a study of a typical 18-hour TV broadcast day to determine levels of violence. The networks and the more popular cable channels were monitored for "purposeful, overt, deliberate behavior involving physical force or weapons against other individuals."
There were 1,846 acts of violence that broke down this way.
promos for TV shows
commercials for films
tabloid reality shows
In looking at the role of the broadcast outlets in the violence equation TV mogul Ted Turner said: "They're guilty of murder. We all are -- me too."
The Effects of TV and Film ViolenceThere are many problems in linking media violence to violence in society. First, as we've suggested, only a small percent of those who watch violence are responsible for violent acts.
Most of us are seemingly unaffected by it.
Even though we can't establish a simple, direct, cause-and-effect relationship between media violence and violence in our society, we can draw some conclusions from the data.
Studies show that people who watch a lot of TV violence not only behave more aggressively, but are more prone to hold attitudes that favor violence and aggression as a way of solving conflicts. These viewers also tend to be less trusting of people and more prone to see the world as a hostile place.
Studies also show that media violence also has a desensitizing effect on viewers.
As a result, specific levels of violence become more acceptable over time. It then takes more and more graphic violence to shock (and hold) an audience.
History gives us many examples. To cite just one, the famous Roman Circuses started out being a rather tame form of entertainment. But in an effort to excite audiences, violence and rape were introduced in the arena settings. Subsequently, as audiences got used to seeing these things, they then demanded more and more, until the circuses eventually became violent, bloody and grotesque, and hundreds, if not thousands, of hapless people died in the process of providing "entertainment."
Next, media violence is typically unrealistic, simplistic, glorified, and even presented as humorous
Next, the consequences of killing, especially by the "good guys," are seldom shown. Violence and killing are commonly depicted as a ready and even acceptable solution to problems. To put it simplistically, problems are solved when the "bad guys" are all dead.
The unrealistic element of TV and film violence seems to come as a surprise to some. A young gang member who was admitted to a New York ER after being shot seemed amazed to find that getting shot was not only traumatic but excruciatingly painful. He was blaming the doctors and nurses for his pain, since on TV getting shot didn't seem to be all that big of a deal.
A Historic Predisposition
Toward Violence?Some say violence is in the human DNA and that religion offers the only true defense.
This would seem logical. But, if you know your history, you know that organized religion --including Judeo-Christianity -- has been a major part of the problem. As lamentable as it may be, it has been estimated that over the centuries more than a billion deaths have been associated with Judeo-Christianity.
According to Sankara Saranam (God Without Religion, 2005) -
Joseph Dispenza wrote:
The full body count may not be in, but we can certainly imagine the numbers: the millions upon millions of our species who have been killed in war, hanged, burned at the stake, tortured to death, and otherwise silenced in the name of religion...
Even thought many want to believe these deaths were somehow justified in the cause of some greater good, this raises some disquieting issues about humanity's predisposition toward violence.
Gene Roddenberry and Star Trek
One of the most successful television series in history, Star Trek, was created, produced and (largely) written by Gene Roddenberry, whose primary message was peaceful coexistence.
The series started in 1966 and its various incarnations continued until 2006. The series won scores of humanitarian awards. Colleges have even offered English courses that focus on the series.
Anyone who has followed Star Trek knows that (under Roddenberry) gratuitous violence was almost never seen. One wonders how many TV and film producers can say the same.
Summary and ConclusionsWe have clear indications that the long-term effects of exposure to media violence will lead to undesirable social consequences. These negative social effects will undoubtedly be accelerated as violence becomes more graphic in an effort to attract and hold film and TV audiences.
In looking over the evidence of the increasing levels of film and TV violence it is now taking to satisfy viewers and the resulting effects on society, David Puttnam, a noted film director, simply observed, "We are destroying ourselves."
TV producers clearly face a dilemma in dealing with the apparent conflict between the negative effects of TV violence and positive program ratings.So what's the answer?
First, we have to take a look at how violence is used. Eliminating all violence from the media is not in keeping with the reality of the human condition. Violence has always been with us and probably always will be.
But the 32,000 murders and 40,000 attempted murders witnessed by normal TV viewers over 18 years is clearly unrealistic and exploitative.
Violence is being used as a superficial way of grabbing and holding an audience.Many TV and film producers have elected to "take a higher road" and not rely on gratuitous violence to capture and hold an audience. This route typically results in more accolades for their work and more personal respect from the creative community.
But the higher road is often the more difficult one. It takes talent to engage an audience through the strength of your storytelling and production expertise. One of the most revered and captivating movies of all time, Casablanca, which involved an intense a love story and a social-political struggle, had almost no overt sex or violence.Since the commercial aspect of this topic is important, it may be significant that a well documented study by the American Psychological Association shows that commercials in violent TV shows are not as effective in selling products as commercials in other types of TV programming.
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In a world where sex and violence is part of our everyday lives, not only in fictional form, but also in our neighborhoods, among our friends, in many parts of the world and even on the kid’s playground, it is very hard to restrict television from showing scenes containing graphic images not meant for all audiences to see. It is difficult to go without seeing these images of violence or speaking about sex because it is everywhere. The better question is whether sex and violence should be restricted in order to protect young children from such images? Due to the influence that television has on children and teenagers, sex and violence needs to be restricted on television in order to minimize the negative effects of what is being broadcast.
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Children who are extensively exposed to violence on television are more likely to become socially isolated. Unfortunately, violence does not appear solely in the movies and programs for adults, but also in many cartoons that children, who are not supervised, watch. Children learn many things through imitation. Therefore, it is possible that they try to imitate the heroes and villains they see on television. This can lead to many unwanted and dangerous consequences.
In addition, the social behavior of children who spend many hours almost hypnotized in front of the television set, also changes drastically. These children become less communicative and pursue fewer real life friendships. This can lead to the development of many different types of new personality disorders in the future. Specialists in the field of Child Psychology are not yet equipped to properly deal with severe cases of child aggression caused by the influence of such graphic images.
When is the proper time to start educating children about sexuality is also a question to which there is no right answer yet. Nowadays, parents have many options to choose from when it comes to educating their children about sex. Many books have been adapted for different stages of childhood.
However, sex does appear very often in television and it can be portrayed in a way that it becomes confusing for children and teenagers.
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 stated that, within two years of its passage, televisions must be manufactured with a V-chip. This allowed a parent to block television programs that they feel are inappropriate for their children by working together with a television rating system. Television programs, except news and sports, received ratings, and then parents used these ratings to decide which programs they wanted to block.
The first system used was developed by the entertainment industry. It was called the „TV Parental Guidelines,“ and went into effect in January of 1997. This method of rating television shows was very familiar to the general public. It was similar to the Motion Picture Association of America’s system for movies. The original TV Parental Guidelines contained the following four ratings: TV-G (general audience), TV-PG (parental guidance suggested), TV-14 (parents strongly cautioned), and TV-MA (mature audiences only). The One difference between the two systems is that the TV Parental Guidelines included a separate, two-level rating system for children’s programs: TV-Y (all children) and TV-Y7 (directed to older children).
Both the MPAA ratings and the TV Parental Guidelines are „age-based“ systems, meaning they recommend or discourage viewing based on how old viewers are. Both rating systems are missing any indication of what material content is in a given movie or television program or why it might be not suitable for viewers of a certain age.
Fortunately, however, the TV Parental Guidelines were revised. Because of the intense criticism that the system received, the industry agreed to modify the existing system to include ratings that would indicate what kind of content appears in programs. The letters V, S, L, and D were added to indicate the presence of violence, sex, language, and suggestive dialogue. The letters „FV,” indicating „fantasy violence,” were then added to the children’s ratings to warn parents of the presence of „more intense“ violence in those programs. The revised TV Parental Guidelines went into effect in October of 1997.
This is a great resource for parents to use in order to determine the appropriateness of what their kids watch. Sexual content and violence in television can’t be avoided. Sex and violence should be restricted from children, and this gives parents the option of choosing what content to restrict on an individual basis, depending on their child’s maturity level. This is a good solution; it provides an opportunity to protect kids from graphic images which have potential to damage a child. Overall, this is one of the best solutions to restrict sex and violence on an individual level, and leaving the responsibility to the parents of what content should be allowed in their home.
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Nathanson, Amy. “Protecting Children from Harmful Television: TV Ratings and the V-chip.” Parenthood in America.